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Graphic design may consist of the conscious choice, creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a business card, brochure, flyer, poster, web site, or book without any other element. The objective usually is the effective communication with people in a short, clear & simple way, association with other cultural & environmental elements may be required, or just, the creation of a distinctive or unique style.

G
raphics (from Greek γραφικόςgraphikos, 'something written' e.g. autograph) are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain. In contemporary usage it includes: pictorial representation of data, as in computer-aided design and manufacture, in typesetting and the graphic arts, and in educational and recreational software. Images that are generated by a computer are called computer graphics.

Graphic Design in its simplest form is visual problem solving. It doesn't matter which visual medium, print, web , mobile or video. Typography, Colour Theory and Layout are just methods of addressing the problem you want to solve. The problem usually is "how to communicate with people and what idea or concept?"Visual communication is typically universal, which is why it was the first form of "writing" in ancient times through iconography. In graphic design, you should have to consider how the colour is, how effect we can use, and the shape and type of typography.

Design has intent and purpose, Art is Expressive.

.التصميم يحتوي على هدف وغاية، أما الفن فهو تعبيري

デザインの意図と目的を持って、アート、表現である


 We combine these thing in Visual communication or Graphic Design. We use visual art in combination with design principles to communicate information and stimulate the ideas or feelings we want people to associate with something.

Though often overlooked, Graphic Design surrounds us: it is the signs we read, the products we buy, and the rooms we inhabit. Graphic designers find beauty within limitations, working towards the ultimate goal of visually communicating a message, be it the packaging of a product, the spirit of a book, or the narrative of a building. Utilizing a language of type and imagery, graphic designers try to make every aspect of our lives defined and beautiful.

1graph·ic

adjective \ˈgra-fik\ means shown or described in a very clear way and relating to the artistic use of pictures, shapes, and words especially in books and magazines
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Full Definition of GRAPHIC

1 a :  of or relating to the pictorial arts; also :  pictorial
   b :  of, relating to, or involving such reproductive methods as those of engraving, etching, lithography, photography, serigraphy, and woodcut
   c :  of or relating to the art of printing
  d :  relating or according to graphics
2 :  formed by writing, drawing, or engraving
3 usually graphic a :  marked by clear lifelike or vividly realistic description
                            b :  vividly or plainly shown or described <a graphic sex scene>
4 usually graphical :  of, relating to, or represented by a graph
5 :  of or relating to the written or printed word or the symbols or devices used in writing or printing to represent sound or convey meaning
graph·i·cal·lyadverb
graph·ic·nessnoun

Variants of GRAPHIC

graph·ic also graph·i·cal

Examples of GRAPHIC

  1. <the report offered many graphic details about the devastating earthquake that rocked the area>
  2. <got a degree in graphic design>

Origin of GRAPHIC

Latin graphicus, from Greek graphikos, from graphein
First Known Use: 1637

Related to GRAPHIC

Synonyms
delineated, pictorial, picturesque, visual, vivid

Synonym Discussion of GRAPHIC

graphic, vivid, picturesque mean giving a clear visual impression in words. graphic stresses the evoking of a clear lifelike picture <a graphic account of combat>. vivid suggests an impressing on the mind of the vigorous aliveness of something <a vivid re-creation of an exciting event>. picturesque suggests the presentation of a striking or effective picture composed of features notable for their distinctness and charm <a picturesque account of his travels>.

 

Other Fine Arts Terms

Gothic, baroque, bas-relief, limn, oeuvre, pastiche, rococo, sfumato

Rhymes with GRAPHIC

maffick, sapphic, traffic

2graphic

noun

graphics : pictures or images on the screen of a computer, television, etc.

: a picture, drawing, or graph used as a decoration or to make something (such as magazine article) easier to understand

Full Definition of GRAPHIC

1 a :  a product of graphic art
   b plural :  the graphic media
2 a :  a graphic representation (as a picture, map, or graph) used especially for illustration
   b :  a pictorial image displayed on a computer screen <the program's graphics are impressive>
   c plural but sing or plural in constr :  the art or science of drawing a representation of an object on a two-dimensional surface according to mathematical rules of projection
3 plural but sing or plural in constr :  the process whereby a computer displays graphics
4 :  a printed message superimposed on a television picture.

Examples of GRAPHIC

  1. She illustrated her talk with a graphic showing state population growth.
  2. <the use of graphics in the text of the dictionary helps to break up the visual monotony of the page>

First Known Use of GRAPHIC

1944

Related to GRAPHIC

Synonyms
          diagram, figure, illustration, plate, visual

Related Words
          art, artwork; drawing, illumination, image, pictogram, pictograph, picture; caption, key, legend; inset; depiction, pictorialization, portrait, portrayal, representation; clarification, elucidation, explanation, explication, exposition

 

History

The earliest graphics known to anthropologists studying prehistoric periods are cave paintings and markings on boulders, bone, ivory, and antlers, which were created during the Upper Palaeolithic period from 40,000–10,000 B.C. or earlier. Many of these were found to record astronomical, seasonal, and chronological details. Some of the earliest graphics and drawings known to the modern world, from almost 6,000 years ago, are that of engraved stone tablets and ceramic cylinder seals, marking the beginning of the historic periods and the keeping of records for accounting and inventory purposes. Records from Egypt predate these and papyrus was used by the Egyptians as a material on which to plan the building of pyramids; they also used slabs of limestone and wood. From 600–250 BC, the Greeks played a major role in geometry. They used graphics to represent their mathematical theories such as the Circle Theorem and the Pythagorean theorem.

Dazzling in all this long history and in the light of the recent boom in the field of visual communication in the twentieth and twenty-first century, we find in some cases, the difference in all of advertising, graphic design and fine arts. In spite of it all, but they all share the same elements , theories, principles, practices and languages ​​, and sometimes in the same donor or client. The ultimate goal in the art of advertising is to sell goods and services. We also find substance in graphic design, is " to organize the information , and the formation of ideas and expression of a mood and a sense of the realities of art documenting the human experience .

It is difficult to claim to know the origin of the term " graphic design ." It has been attributed to Richard Guyatt, the British designer and academic , but another source suggests  William Addison Dwiggins, American book designer in 1922.

 

It is also the signs in the London Underground is an example of classic design In the modern era , he used the line designed by Edward Johnston in 1916.

In the 1920s, Soviet architecture applied ' intellectual production ' in different areas of production . The movement witnessed some aspects of the individual art is useless in revolutionary Russia and thus moved towards creating objects for utilitarian purposes . Where they design buildings, the Times theater , posters , fabrics and clothing, furniture , logos , menus , etc.

Where without Jean Skitchild principles of modern printing in his book published in 1928 titled new print . Where deny later philosophy presented in this book as a fascist , but still very impressive.  The photographers who walked on the trail Skitchild Bauhaus and the likes of Herbert Bayer Muhola Laszlo Nagy,  Lyle Aszaky  are the fathers of graphic design as we know it today. Where are considered the pioneers of production techniques and devices selected which are still in use throughout the twentieth century . It also met with graphic designs with modern style in the years following acceptance and application on a large scale .  It has also become the U.S. economy after World War II in an urgent need for graphic design , mainly advertising and packaging . It also brought a migration of German Bauhaus school of design , " the production of an extremist " to Chicago in 1937 ; resulting in the excitability of architecture and design , " modern ." Among the prominent names in the field of the design of the middle of this century Adrian Vruaeger , designer face Vruaeger and Eonaeffers Univers and Frutiger; Rand Paul , in the period from the late thirties until his death in 1996 , took the principles of the Bauhaus and applied to the design of advertising and logos public , and helped create curriculum U.S. Fred 's cost while the European has become one of the pioneers of a subset of graphic design known as the identity of the cooperative , and finally Joseph Muller Brockmann , who designed posters unspeakable violence but with this simple and identical to the era of the fifties and sixties .

Joseph Muller Brockmann work

In art, "graphics" is often used to distinguish work in a monotone and made up of lines, as opposed to painting.

Drawing

Drawing generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface. In which a tool is always used as if there were no tools it would be art. Graphical drawing is an instrumental guided drawing.

 

Printmaking

Woodblock printing, including images is first seen in China after paper was invented (about A.D. 105). In the West the main techniques have been woodcut, engraving and etching, but there are many others.

 

Etching

Etching is an intaglio method of printmaking in which the image is incised into the surface of a metal plate using an acid. The acid eats the metal, leaving behind roughened areas, or, if the surface exposed to the acid is very thin, burning a line into the plate. The use of the process in printmaking is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer (c. 1470–1536) of Augsburg, Germany, who decorated armour in this way.

 

Etching is also used in the manufacturing of printed circuit boards and semiconductor devices.

GFX

GFX is a type of graphics where Branding for social media sites is implemented. For example YouTube Banners or Twitter Headers. GFX became popular around 2010 when people first started recording their branding calling it a "speedart". A popular type of GFX is to take a logo or text, make it 3D in Cinema 4D and then use a plugin called Nitroblast or Thrausi to make it look shattered. This was mostly prevalent in the Call of Duty community with different 'Clans' the most outstanding one being TheDareArts which still today is run professionally and is great for aspiring designers.

 

Line Art

Line art is a rather non-specific term sometimes used for any image that consists of distinct straight and curved lines placed against a (usually plain) background, without gradations in shade (darkness) or hue (color) to represent two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects. Line art is usually monochromatic, although lines may be of different colors.

 

Illustration

An illustration is a visual representation such as a drawing, painting, photograph or other work of art that stresses subject more than form. The aim of an illustration is to elucidate or decorate a story, poem or piece of textual information (such as a newspaper article), traditionally by providing a visual representation of something described in the text. The editorial cartoon, also known as a political cartoon, is an illustration containing a political or social message.

 

Illustrations can be used to display a wide range of subject matter and serve a variety of functions, such as:

  • giving faces to characters in a story
  • displaying a number of examples of an item described in an academic textbook (e.g. A Typology)
  • visualising step-wise sets of instructions in a technical manual
  • communicating subtle thematic tone in a narrative
  • linking brands to the ideas of human expression, individuality and creativity
  • making a reader laugh or smile
  • for fun (to make laugh) funny

Graphs

A graph or chart is a type of information graphic that represents tabular, numeric data. Charts are often used to make it easier to understand large quantities of data and the relationships between different parts of the data.

 

Diagrams

A diagram is a simplified and structured visual representation of concepts, ideas, constructions, relations, statistical data, etc., used to visualize and clarify the topic.

 

Symbols

A symbol, in its basic sense, is a representation of a concept or quantity; i.e., an idea, object, concept, quality, etc. In more psychological and philosophical terms, all concepts are symbolic in nature, and representations for these concepts are simply token artifacts that are allegorical to (but do not directly codify) a symbolic meaning, or symbolism.

 

Maps

A map is a simplified depiction of a space, a navigational aid which highlights relations between objects within that space. Usually, a map is a two-dimensional, geometrically accurate representation of a three-dimensional space.

One of the first 'modern' maps was made by Waldseemüller.

 

Photography

One difference between photography and other forms of graphics is that a photographer, in principle, just records a single moment in reality, with seemingly no interpretation. However, a photographer can choose the field of view and angle, and may also use other techniques, such as various lenses to distort the view or filters to change the colors. In recent times, digital photography has opened the way to an infinite number of fast, but strong, manipulations. Even in the early days of photography, there was controversy over photographs of enacted scenes that were presented as 'real life' (especially in war photography, where it can be very difficult to record the original events). Shifting the viewer's eyes ever so slightly with simple pinpricks in the negative could have a dramatic effect.

The choice of the field of view can have a strong effect, effectively 'censoring out' other parts of the scene, accomplished by cropping them out or simply not including them in the photograph. This even touches on the philosophical question of what reality is. The human brain processes information based on previous experience, making us see what we want to see or what we were taught to see. Photography does the same, although the photographer interprets the scene for their viewer.

 

Engineering drawings

An engineering drawing is a type of drawing and is technical in nature, used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items. It is usually created in accordance with standardized conventions for layout, nomenclature, interpretation, appearance (such as typefaces and line styles), size, etc.

 

Computer graphics

There are two types of computer graphics: raster graphics, where each pixel is separately defined (as in a digital photograph), and vector graphics, where mathematical formulas are used to draw lines and shapes, which are then interpreted at the viewer's end to produce the graphic. Using vectors results in infinitely sharp graphics and often smaller files, but, when complex,like vectors take time to render and may have larger file sizes than a raster equivalent.

In 1950, the first computer-driven display was attached to MIT's Whirlwind I computer to generate simple pictures. This was followed by MIT's TX-0 and TX-2, interactive computing which increased interest in computer graphics during the late 1950s. In 1962, Ivan Sutherland invented Sketchpad, an innovative program that influenced alternative forms of interaction with computers.

In the mid-1960s, large computer graphics research projects were begun at MIT, General Motors, Bell Labs, and Lockheed Corporation. Douglas T. Ross of MIT developed an advanced compiler language for graphics programming. S.A.Coons, also at MIT, and J. C. Ferguson at Boeing, began work in sculptured surfaces. GM developed their DAC-1 system, and other companies, such as Douglas, Lockheed, and McDonnell, also made significant developments. In 1968, ray tracing was first described by Arthur Appel of the IBM Research Center, Yorktown Heights, N.Y.[1]

During the late 1970s, personal computers became more powerful, capable of drawing both basic and complex shapes and designs. In the 1980s, artists and graphic designers began to see the personal computer, particularly the Commodore Amiga and Macintosh, as a serious design tool, one that could save time and draw more accurately than other methods. 3D computer graphics became possible in the late 1980s with the powerful SGI computers, which were later used to create some of the first fully computer-generated short films at Pixar. The Macintosh remains one of the most popular tools for computer graphics in graphic design studios and businesses.

Modern computer systems, dating from the 1980s and onwards, often use a graphical user interface (GUI) to present data and information with symbols, icons and pictures, rather than text. Graphics are one of the five key elements of multimedia technology.

3D graphics became more popular in the 1990s in gaming, multimedia and animation. In 1996, Quake, one of the first fully 3D games, was released. In 1995, Toy Story, the first full-length computer-generated animation film, was released in cinemas. Since then, computer graphics have become more accurate and detailed, due to more advanced computers and better 3D modeling software applications, such as Maya, 3D Studio Max, and Cinema 4D.

Another use of computer graphics is screensavers, originally intended to preventing the layout of much-used GUIs from 'burning into' the computer screen. They have since evolved into true pieces of art, their practical purpose obsolete; modern screens are not susceptible to such burn in artifacts.

 

Web graphics

In the 1990s, Internet speeds increased, and Internet browsers capable of viewing images were released, the first being Mosaic. Websites began to use the GIF format to display small graphics, such as banners, advertisements and navigation buttons, on web pages. Modern web browsers can now display JPEG, PNG and increasingly, SVG images in addition to GIFs on web pages. SVG, and to some extent VML, support in some modern web browsers have made it possible to display vector graphics that are clear at any size. Plugins expand the web browser functions to display animated, interactive and 3-D graphics contained within file formats such as SWF and X3D.

Modern web graphics can be made with software such as Adobe Photoshop, the GIMP, or Corel Paint Shop Pro. Users of Microsoft Windows have MS Paint, which many find to be lacking in features. This is because MS Paint is a drawing package and not a graphics package.

Numerous platforms and websites have been created to cater to web graphics artists and to host their communities. A growing number of people use create internet forum signatures—generally appearing after a user's post—and other digital artwork, such as photo manipulations and large graphics. With computer games' developers creating their own communities around their products, many more websites are being developed to offer graphics for the fans and to enable them to show their appreciation of such games in their own gaming profiles.

 

Uses

Graphics are visual elements often used to point readers and viewers to particular information. They are also used to supplement text in an effort to aid readers in their understanding of a particular concept or make the concept more clear or interesting. Popular magazines, such as TIME, Wired and Newsweek, usually contain graphic material in abundance to attract readers, unlike the majority of scholarly journals. In computing, they are used to create a graphical interface for the user; and graphics are one of the five key elements of multimedia technology. Graphics are among the primary ways of advertising the sale of goods or services.

 

Business

Graphics are commonly used in business and economics to create financial charts and tables. The term Business Graphics came into use in the late 1970s, when personal computers became capable of drawing graphs and charts instead of using a tabular format. Business Graphics can be used to highlight changes over a period of time.

 

Advertising

Advertising is one of the most profitable uses of graphics; artists often do advertising work or take advertising potential into account when creating art, to increase the chances of selling the artwork.

 

Political

The use of graphics for overtly political purposes—cartoons, graffiti, poster art, flag design, etc.—is a centuries old practice which thrives today in every part of the world. The Northern Irish murals are one such example. A more recent example is Shepard Fairey's 2008 U.S. Presidential election Barack Obama "Hope" poster. It was first published on the web, but soon found its way onto streets throughout the United States.

 

Education

Graphics are heavily used in textbooks, especially those concerning subjects such as geography, science, and mathematics, in order to illustrate theories and concepts, such as the human anatomy. Diagrams are also used to label photographs and pictures.

Educational animation is an important emerging field of graphics. Animated graphics have obvious advantages over static graphics when explaining subject matter that changes over time.

The Oxford Illustrated Dictionary uses graphics and technical illustrations to make reading material more interesting and easier to understand. In an encyclopedia, graphics are used to illustrate concepts and show examples of the particular topic being discussed.

In order for a graphic to function effectively as an educational aid, the learner must be able to interpret it successfully. This interpretative capacity is one aspect of graphicacy.

 

Film and animation

Computer graphics are often used in the majority of new feature films, especially those with a large budget. Films that heavily use computer graphics include The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, the Harry Potter films, Spider-Man and War of the Worlds.

 

Graphics education

The majority of schools, colleges and universities around the world educate students on the subject of graphics and art.

The subject is taught in a broad variety of ways, each course teaching its own distinctive balance of craft skills and intellectual response to the client's needs.

Some graphics courses prioritize traditional craft skills—drawing, printmaking and typography—over modern craft skills. Other courses may place an emphasis on teaching digital craft skills. Still other courses may downplay the crafts entirely, concentrating on training students to generate novel intellectual responses that engage with the brief. Despite these apparent differences in training and curriculum, the staff and students on any of these courses will generally consider themselves to be graphic designers.

The typical pedagogy of a graphic design (or graphic communication, visual communication, graphic arts or any number of synonymous course titles) will be broadly based on the teaching models developed in the Bauhaus school in Germany or Vkhutemas in Russia. The teaching model will tend to expose students to a variety of craft skills (currently everything from drawing to motion capture), combined with an effort to engage the student with the world of visual culture.

 

Famous graphic designers

Aldus Manutius designed the first Italic type style which is often used in desktop publishing and graphic design. April Greiman is known for her influential poster design. Paul Rand is well known as a design pioneer for designing many popular corporate logos, including the logo for IBM, NeXT and UPS. William Caslon, during the mid-18th century, designed many typefaces, including ITC Founder's Caslon, ITC Founder's Caslon Ornaments, Caslon Graphique, ITC Caslon No. 224, Caslon Old Face and Big Caslon.

 

Some Opinions

First and foremost, graphic design has to communicate something. But good graphic design makes people's lives better. You have to find a way to make sense of how to make something beautiful and, to me, you're speaking for them. As a graphic designer, concept is the first thing; idea and life. Graphic design is essentially a language for living. Graphic design is about using words and images to convey a message. Graphic designers have to know a lot about color theory, typography, how to create a grid. But those are all really basic. You have to be somebody that is really interested in understanding human behavior, being able to understand how they think, how they choose, how they buy, how they believe. People probably don't think about how much graphic design impacts them. We use graphic design to cross the street, to decide what we want to eat and how much we want to eat. We use graphic design to pay our bills, to get married. We use graphic design to get divorced. We use graphic design in every single aspect of human life right now and people tend to like things best when they feel that they are respected by that thing. But I think, ultimately, if it moves you, whether it be a good emotion or a bad emotion, chances are that it's effective because it's getting you to think about something and it's getting you to potentially take action. When I work on package design I like for there to be an idea behind it. I like for there to be some wit, some language, some feeling that there is a human hand behind what you are interacting with. Like, for instance, matchbooks are one of my favorite things to design. It's this nice intimate moment between you and the smoker or candlelighter because you have the reveal that can be completely surprising. For the Spice Market, we turned them into these little incense boxes. I like to think about the product like I'm the consumer. So, when we were working on the kleenex project, we learned that, for some people, choosing which pattern on the box to take home is a huge part of their day. So, I think about what would give me a moments pleasure when interacting with that thing. The Mercer Hotel was a really interesting project that was very clean and very understated and witty. And not necessarily witty in the design but also witty in the language. Like, for instance, there's always that sign on the bathrobe that says "If you take it, you're going to have to pay for it." But we didn't want to say that in such a crass way, so we just made a sign that very simply said "disrobe" and then, when you turned it over, it said "is available for purchase in the lobby." And, so,sometimes maybe beautiful isn't exactly what it should be. Maybe it needs to be quirky or maybe it needs to be ugly or maybe it needs to be invisible. So, I think you're always solving what it has to look like visually based on what it needs to be conceptually. A lot of times when people talk about signage and environmental graphics they think that it always involves letters but it really involves landmarks, creating a moment that somebody remembers and immediately understands. Graphic designers aren't trained necessarily to think in dimension but you do need to identify things within space that the architecture wouldn't necessarily be doing otherwise; through color and type and light. Working on the signage for Bloomberg's offices, they wanted people to use the stairs. We thought if people are intended to use this space, why don't we at least make it interesting to use. If you can make the space interesting people will want to be there. It really involves creating a moment that somebody remembers and immediately understands. Bridge designs are decorations that we have proposed for the city of Pittsburgh and our proposal was to, essentially, make those moments special moments. So it could just be a paint job or it could be using light in a certain way to highlight that feature as a gateway to the north side. Every building has a timeline of your experience with it. What's the cover of this book and then how does that play out as one navigates through the space where your mind actually solves the problem. So, there's a process of discovery there. Should you judge a book by its cover? I would really like to say yes, but I think that there's a lot of really good books out there that don't have good covers. My guiding philosophy in design is forever going to change, I think. You have to understand the responsibility you have in terms of there's someone at the end of the line there that actually cares about what you're doing and you have to give it a voice. I never like to pin myself down to one different style and, to me, that's what's fun about design as opposed to an illustrator's style. You can wear different hats. The artistic expression, that is the art of it. Getting into the mind of a book, expressing what the book is about, making it beautiful and grabbing people's attention. You always care about what are you reading first and that's based on contrast of size, contrast of color, is the title more important than the author, can you read it from across the store or not. You know, these are the things that I think about on a daily basis. You have to understand where this book fits in the world of books. The Day the World Ends is a poetry book and here's an example of well, what do you focus on? You have all these different poems that are about different things so I broke the type up a little bit and the author just connected with it. If you love the content, you want something to come up in your head when you think about it. So, any successful book cover is something that you want to hold in your hand. It's unexpected, smart, and beautiful but at the end of the day you just want to put it on your book shelf face out because it means something to you. We use graphic design now in many ways to convey who we are as people, to define affiliations, to signal beliefs. If you can contribute to making peoples lives a little bit better and elevating the general level of design, then why not? If you know how you want to make them feel, that's the most important thing. You just want to make something memorable. I say, do what you think is right and interesting and smart and then worry about what the survey says.

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