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Pre-history Paintings

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Prehistory painting for a group of hippos in Chauvet Cave. Chauvet contains a complete of over three hundred paintings and engravings. These were classified in specific ways that. within the most accessible a part of the cave, most pictures area unit red, with a couple of black or incised ones. within the deeper half, the animals area unit largely black, with way fewer rock engravings and red figures. Also, there area unit groupings of specific animals: for instance, the Horse Panel and also the Panel of Lions and Rhinoceroses. What makes Chauvet such a crucial example of Franco-Cantabrian cave art, is that the sophistication of its paintings. No alternative Aurignacian cave contains compositions with an equivalent degree of realism, naturalism and quality. For the animal figures we can find that the most noticeable animals within the cave area are: lions, mammoths, and rhinoceroses, all of whom were seldom afraid, so not like most alternative caves, Chauvet isn't a pictorial showcase of daily period of time life. alternative rare animals embrace a panther, a noticed leopard Associate in Nursingd an bird of Minerva. additionally, the cave options the same old horses, bison, aurochs, ibex, reindeer, cervid and musk-oxen.

4La Valltorta World Heritage Site by Unesco

This secluded town in the region of Alto Maestrazgo houses one of the best examples of cave art from Levante, and was declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco.
Tírig, a small town in the region of Alto Maestrazgo, traditionally devoted to cattle raising and agriculture (almonds and olives), is famous for having in its township one of the most important samples of Levante cave art.
These cave paintings, declared a World Heritage site by Unesco, are located in the ravine of La Valltorta. There we find almost nine hundred painted figures scattered around seventeen small caves, depicting humans and animals mainly in hunting scenes, which reveals their Neolithic origin.
The Museum of La Valltorta, located in this town, exhibits an interesting collection that includes reproductions of these cave paintings, the only testimony of the prehistoric settlers of the Mediterranean bowl.

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This was designated World Heritage in 1924.

It contains prehistoric rock art that was designated World Heritage by UNESCO within the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula. Amongst its specific criteria, this international organisation underlines that “the corpus of late prehistoric mural paintings in the Mediterranean basin of eastern Spain is the largest group of rock-art sites anywhere in Europe, and provides an exceptional picture of human life in a seminal period of human cultural evolution.”

history of art

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Een van de grottekeningen in Lascaux-tentoonstelling in het Jubelpark (© Lascaux International Exhibition)

History of Western painting

Egypt, Greece and Rome

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This one exists in the tomb of Nebamun 1350 BC shows the New Kingdom period accountant Nebamun hunting birds in the marshes of Egypt. He is accompanied by his wife and daughter. Scenes like these of the deceased enjoying himself were common in New Kingdom tomb chambers.

3Tomb of Nakht

 A tomb made with relief shows workers seeding the fields, harvesting the crops product, and threshing the grain under the supervision of an supervisor, painting found in the tomb of Nakht.

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Different Stages of the Production of wheat. Mortuary of Chapel of Menna, mostly superintendent of estates the king Amen, in the mid of the eighteenth dynasty, at old Thebes.

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Different Stages of the Production of wheat. Mortuary of Chapel of Menna, mostly superintendent of estates the king Amen, in the mid of the eighteenth dynasty, at old Thebes.

 

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 Hatshepsut's trading expedition to the Land of Punt.

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painting of craft workers in ancient Egypt

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Feast for Nebamum, the tomb-chapel of Nebamun, C. 1350 BC

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Nebamun’s cows, The tomb-chapel of Nebamun, around 1350 BC

Greece Art

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Knossos, Minoan civilization, Bronze Age Crete Commonly known as the "Prince of the Lillies"

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Called Pitsa panels, which is one of the few surviving panel paintings from Archaic Greece, c. 540–530 BC

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Symposium scene in the Tomb of the Diver at Paestum, circa 480 BC Greek art

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Mural painting of soldiers from Agios Athanasios, Thessaloniki, Ancient Macedonia, 4th century BC

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Roman art, Villa Boscoreale frescos, c. 40 BC

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Roman art, Pompeii

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Roman art in Pompeii

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Roman art, Fayum mummy portraits from Roman Egypt

 Byzannte ART

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 Byzantine painting art mosaics in Ravenna

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By artist Meister von Nerezi
painting with Frescoes in Nerezi near Skopje (1164), with their unique blend of high tragedy, gentle humanity, and homespun realism, anticipate the approach of Giotto and other proto-Renaissance Italian artists.

Chinese painting

 

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 Spring Morning in the Han Palace, by Ming-era artist Qiu Ying (1494–1552 AD)

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Mural paintings of court life in Xu Xianxiu's Tomb, Northern Qi Dynasty, 571 AD, located in Taiyuan, Shanxi province, China

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Emperor Sun Quan in the Thirteen Emperors Scroll and Northern Qi Scholars Collating Classic Texts, by Yan Liben (c. 600–673 AD), Chinese

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Night Revels, a Song dynasty remake of a 10th-century original by Gu Hongzhong.

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Golden bird and Cotton Rose, by Emperor Huizong of Song (r.1100–1126 AD), Chinese

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The Xiao and Xiang Rivers, by Dong Yuan (c. 934–962 AD), Chinese

 

Japanese painting

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Shukei-sansui (Autumn Landscape), Sesshu Toyo (1420–1506), Japanese

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Tang Yin, A Fisher in Autumn, (1523), Chinese

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Nanban ships arriving for trade in Japan, 16th century, Japanese

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Hanging scroll 1672, Kanō Tanyū (1602–1674), Japanese

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Genji Monogatari, by Tosa Mitsuoki (1617–1691), Japanese

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The Adoration of the Magi, (Life of the Virgin)

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One of the Legend of St. Francis frescoes at Assisi, the authorship of which is disputed

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Giotto

 

 

 

Renaissance and Mannerism

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 Filippo Lippi

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The Agony in the Garden. between circa 1458 and circa 1460, 63 × 80 cm (24.8 × 31.5 in) artist: Andrea Mantegna

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Leonardo da Vinci between 1503 and 1506

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Raphael, The Small Cowper Madonna, circa 1505, oil on panel

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Michelangelo, The Creation of Adam, circa 1511, 480.1 × 230.1 cm (189 × 90.6 in)

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Giovanni Bellini, Saint Francis in the Desert, oil and tempera on poplar wood

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Titian, Self-Portrait

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Leonardo da Vinci, last supper 1495-1497

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 The Garden of Earthly Delights in the Museo del Prado in Madrid, c. 1495–1505, attributed to Bosch.

The Baroque

The Baroque (US /bəˈroʊk/ or UK /bəˈrɒk/) is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome and Italy, and spread to most of Europe.[1]

The popularity and success of the Baroque style was encouraged by the Catholic Church, which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent, in response to the Protestant Reformation, that the arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement.[2][3] The aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of Baroque architecture and art as a means of impressing visitors and expressing triumph, power and control. Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, "baroque" has resonance and application that extend beyond a simple reduction to either style or period

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Jan Vermeer, The Astronomer

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Rembrandt van Rijn, The Night Watch, 1642

 

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The Triumph of the Immaculate by Paolo de Matteis

18th Century painting

Rococo

Rococo (/rəˈkoʊkoʊ/ or /roʊkəˈkoʊ/), less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", is an early to late French 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre. It developed in the early 18th century in Paris, France as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry, and strict regulations of the previous Baroque style, especially of the Palace of Versailles,[1] until it was redone. Rococo artists and architects used a more jocular, florid, and graceful approach to the Baroque. Their style was ornate and used light colours, asymmetrical designs, curves, and gold. Unlike the political Baroque, the Rococo had playful and witty themes. The interior decoration of Rococo rooms was designed as a total work of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings.

By the end of the 18th century, Rococo was largely replaced by the Neoclassic style. In 1835 the Dictionary of the French Academy stated that the word Rococo "usually covers the kind of ornament, style and design associated with Louis XV's reign and the beginning of that of Louis XVI". It includes therefore, all types of art from around the middle of the 18th century in France. The word is seen as a combination of the French rocaille (stone) and coquilles (shell), due to reliance on these objects as decorative motifs.[2] The term may also be a combination of the Italian word "barocco" (an irregularly shaped pearl, possibly the source of the word "baroque") and the French "rocaille" (a popular form of garden or interior ornamentation using shells and pebbles) and may describe the refined and fanciful style that became fashionable in parts of Europe in the 18th century.[3]

The Rococo love of shell-like curves and focus on decorative arts led some critics to say that the style was frivolous or merely modish. When the term was first used in English in about 1836, it was a colloquialism meaning "old-fashioned". The style received harsh criticism and was seen by some to be superficial and of poor taste,[4][5] especially when compared to neoclassicism; despite this, it has been praised for its aesthetic qualities, and since the mid-19th century, the term has been accepted by art historians. While there is still some debate about the historical significance of the style to art in general, Rococo is now widely recognized as a major period in the development of European art.

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Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Happy Accidents of the Swing, 1767-1768

Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank")[1] is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome. Neoclassicism was born in Rome in the mid-18th century, but its popularity spread all over Europe, as a generation of European art students finished their Grand Tour and returned from Italy to their home countries with newly rediscovered Greco-Roman ideals. The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, latterly competing with Romanticism. In architecture, the style continued throughout the 19th, 20th and up to the 21st century.

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 Jacques-Louis David, Le Serment des Horaces

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Study for Camilla, black chalk and white highlights

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Study by David, drawing

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 Schematic showing the convergence of many elements in the composition at the central point

David The Death of Socrates

David - The Death of Socrates

19th Century painting

Romantisism

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Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, 1818

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John William Waterhouse, The Lady of Shalott, 1888, after a poem by Tennyson; like many Victorian paintings, romantic but not Romantic

Realism 

Realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.

Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms, perspective, and the details of light and colour. Realist works of art may emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid, such as works of social realism, regionalism, or kitchen sink realism.

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Jean-François Millet, The Gleaners, 1857

Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles. Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s.

The Impressionists faced harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari.

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Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), 1872, oil on canvas, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris. This painting became the source of the movement's name, after Louis Leroy's article The Exhibition of the Impressionists declared that the painting was at most, a sketch.

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Claude Monet, Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son (Camille and Jean Monet), 1875, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

 

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Claude Monet, The Cliff at Étretat after the Storm, 1885, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts

Symbolism

Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the style originates with the 1857 publication of Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal. The works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire admired greatly and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s. In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestos and attracted a generation of writers. The name "symbolist" itself was first applied by the critic Jean Moréas, who invented the term to distinguish the symbolists from the related decadents of literature and of art. 

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Viktor Vasnetsov (1848-1926); Knight at the Crossroads, 1878

This painting portrays a “vityaz” (a Russian Viking) sitting on a mighty horse at the crossroads. Since the Rurik royal dynasty was founded by Vikings, a lot of military features were borrowed from these northern tribes to accommodate Slav army. Around the soldier, there are black crows and skeletons, which represent death. There is a stone in the middle with a text written on it: “If you go straight, you won’t live; there is no way for someone to walk, ride, or fly through”. The invisible bottom part says: “if you go right, you will get married; if you go left, you will get rich”. The whole situation has been inspired by Russian folklore, especially the story of Ilya Muromets. He is savior and protector of Slav people from different Asian tribes. “Going back to the roots” is one of the characteristics of Vasnetsov art. One of the reasons why he has become popular is that his peak came under the rule of Alexander III, who unlike his father, started his rule by introducing multiple counter-reforms. The focus of government censure was to silence leftists, pro-westerners, and radicals, while celebrating conservatives, Russophiles, and religious people. Hence, not only Vasnetsov, but also Dostoevsky and Tolstoy became household names (though they criticized government in their own right). References to the past as part of national identity are extremely crucial to the debate of Russian position in the world. Is she Europe or Asia? Russophiles certainly believed it was neither. In their eyes, Russia has its own way because it is unique and should not try to replicate the experience of neighboring countries. Orthodox religion adds an extra touch to this by stating that after the fall of Roman and Byzantine Empire, Russia is the Third Rome. Therefore, Russian should not follow West, but it is West that should follow Russia and its ideals. This view seems to be very arrogant and unrealistic given dynamics of history. Yet, it was the view that the government and the Tsars needed population to believe. Inspiring nationalism is the easiest way to switch attention from domestic problems to criticizing the problems and injustices abroad.

 

The Post-Impressionists 

The Post-Impressionists were dissatisfied with what they felt was the triviality of subject matter and the loss of structure in Impressionist paintings, though they did not agree on the way forward. Georges Seurat and his followers concerned themselves with Pointillism, the systematic use of tiny dots of colour. Paul Cézanne set out to restore a sense of order and structure to painting, to "make of Impressionism something solid and durable, like the art of the museums".[4] He achieved this by reducing objects to their basic shapes while retaining the saturated colours of Impressionism. The Impressionist Camille Pissarro experimented with Neo-Impressionist ideas between the mid-1880s and the early 1890s. Discontented with what he referred to as romantic Impressionism, he investigated Pointillism, which he called scientific Impressionism, before returning to a purer Impressionism in the last decade of his life.[5] Vincent van Gogh used colour and vibrant swirling brush strokes to convey his feelings and his state of mind.

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Camille Pissarro, Hay Harvest at Éragny, 1901, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario

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 The Card Players, Paul Cézanne, from 1890 until 1892

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Nave nave moe (Sacred spring, sweet dreams), 1894, Hermitage Museum

 

 Neo-Impressionism, Seurat and his followers strove to refine the impulsive and intuitive artistic mannerisms of Impressionism.[2] Neo-impressionists used disciplined networks of dots and blocks of color in their desire to instill a sense of organization and permanence.[4] In further defining the movement, Seurat incorporated the recent explanation of optic and color perceptions.

The development of color theory by Michel Eugène Chevreul and others by the late 19th century played a pivotal role in shaping the Neo-Impressionist style. Ogden Rood’s book, Modern Chromatics, with Applications to Art and Industry, acknowledged the different behaviors exhibited by colored light and colored pigment.[5] While the mixture of the former created a white or gray color, that of the latter produced a dark, murky color. As painters, Neo-Impressionists had to deal with colored pigments,[2] so to avoid the dullness, they devised a system of pure-color juxtaposition. Mixing of colors was not necessary. The effective utilization of pointillism facilitated in eliciting a distinct luminous effect, and from a distance, the dots came together as a whole displaying maximum brilliance and conformity to actual light conditions.

 

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 Georges Seurat - A Sunday on La Grande Jatte -- 1884

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Georges Lemmen, The Beach at Heist), 1891, oil on panel, 37.5 x 45.7 cm, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

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Paul Signac, 1893, Femme à l'ombrelle, oil on canvas, 81 x 65 cm, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

 

 Pointillism /ˈpɔɪntᵻlɪzəm/ is a technique of painting in which small, distinct dots of color are applied in patterns to form an image. Georges Seurat and Paul Signac developed the technique in 1886, branching from Impressionism. The term "Pointillism" was first coined by art critics in the late 1880s to ridicule the works of these artists, and is now used without its earlier mocking connotation.[1] The movement Seurat began with this technique is known as Neo-Impressionism. The Divisionists, too, used a similar technique of patterns to form images, though with larger cube-like brushstrokes.

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Detail from Seurat's La Parade de Cirque (1889), showing the contrasting dots of paint used in Pointillism

 

 Art Nouveau (French pronunciation: ​[aʁ nuvo], Anglicised to /ˈɑːrt nuːˈvoʊ/) is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.[1] A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants and flowers.

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 Alfons Mucha - F. Champenois Imprimeur-Éditeur

 

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Adele Bloch-Bauer 1 by Gustav Klimt (1907)

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Poster by Theophile-Alexandre Steinlen for the cabaret Le Chat noir (1896)

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Poster by Koloman Moser (1899)

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Judgendstil door handle in Berlin (circa 1900)

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The Casa Batlló, remodeled by Antoni Gaudí and Josep Maria Jujol (1904–1906)

 

Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century.[1][2] The term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris (Montmartre, Montparnasse and Puteaux) during the 1910s and extending through the 1920s.

The movement was pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, joined by Andre Lhote, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger and Juan Gris.[3] A primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of three-dimensional form in the late works of Paul Cézanne.[4] A retrospective of Cézanne's paintings had been held at the Salon d'Automne of 1904, current works were displayed at the 1905 and 1906 Salon d'Automne, followed by two commemorative retrospectives after his death in 1907.[5]

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Pablo Picasso, 1910, Girl with a Mandolin (Fanny Tellier), oil on canvas, 100.3 x 73.6 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York

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Jean Metzinger, La Femme au Cheval, Woman with a horse, 1911-1912, Statens Museum for Kunst, National Gallery of Denmark. Exhibited at the 1912 Salon des Indépendants, and published in Apollinaire's 1913 The Cubist Painters, Aesthetic Meditations. Provenance: Jacques Nayral, Niels Bohr

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Albert Gleizes, L'Homme au Balcon, Man on a Balcony (Portrait of Dr. Théo Morinaud), 1912, oil on canvas, 195.6 x 114.9 cm (77 x 45 1/4 in.), Philadelphia Museum of Art. Completed the same year that Albert Gleizes co-authored the book Du "Cubisme" with Jean Metzinger. Exhibited at Salon d'Automne, Paris, 1912, Armory show, New York, Chicago, Boston, 1913

Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas.[1][2] Expressionist artists sought to express the meaning[3] of emotional experience rather than physical reality.

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The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893), which inspired 20th-century Expressionists

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Wassily Kandinsky, 1911, Reiter (Lyrishes), oil on canvas, 94 x 130 cm, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen

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August Macke, Lady in a Green Jacket, 1913

Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.[1] Western art had been, from the Renaissance up to the middle of the 19th century, underpinned by the logic of perspective and an attempt to reproduce an illusion of visible reality. The arts of cultures other than the European had become accessible and showed alternative ways of describing visual experience to the artist. By the end of the 19th century many artists felt a need to create a new kind of art which would encompass the fundamental changes taking place in technology, science and philosophy. The sources from which individual artists drew their theoretical arguments were diverse, and reflected the social and intellectual preoccupations in all areas of Western culture at that time.

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Wassily Kandinsky, Kandinsky's first abstract watercolor, 1910.

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Wassily Kandinsky, On White 2, 1923

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Kurt Schwitters, Das Undbild, 1919, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart

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Mondrian, Piet
Composition A: Composition with Black, Red, Gray, Yellow, and Blue
1920
Oil on canvas
91.5 x 92 cm (36 x 36 1/4 in)
Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Rome

 

 Futurism (Italian: Futurismo) was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasized speed, technology, youth, and violence, and objects such as the car, the aeroplane, and the industrial city. Although it was largely an Italian phenomenon, there were parallel movements in Russia, England, Belgium and elsewhere.

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Natalia Goncharova, Cyclist, 1913

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Fortunato Depero, Skyscrapers and Tunnels (Gratticieli e tunnel), 1930 (detail)

 

The term Op Art refers to Optical Art. Op Art Followed POP Art movement of the 1960s. It was first called "kinetic art" (art which moves) because some of the art actually moved or appeared to move because of the way the designs play tricks on our vision. The visual effects include vibrating colors, concentric colors, afterimages, and pulsing patterns that disturb the eye and cause it to see images or movement on a flat surface. The Op Art illusion often compels the viewer to look away yet demands that the eye look back again.

Joseph Albers and Victor Vasarerly emerged as the "fathers" of the Op Art movement. Albers, from Germany, experimented with the interaction of color.

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Victor Vasarely

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Victor Vasarely

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 Victor Vasarely94

Outdoor Vasarely artwork at the church of Pálos in Pécs

Concept art is a form of illustration used to convey an idea for use in films, video games, animation, comic books or other media before it is put into the final product.[1] Concept art is also referred to as visual development and/or concept design.[2] This term can also be applied to retail, set, fashion, architectural and industrial design.[3]

Concept art is developed in several iterations. Artists try several designs to achieve the desired result for the work, or sometimes searching for an interesting result. Designs are filtered and refined in stages to narrow down the options. Concept art is not only used to develop the work, but also to show the project's progress to directors, clients and investors. Once the development of the work is complete, advertising materials often resemble concept art, although these are typically made specifically for this purpose, based on final work.

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The Concept Art of Waqas Malik

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